When do Powers of Attorney Start and End?

One common estate planning misconception is when Powers of Attorney start and end. A Power of Attorney is a tool used to grant authority to someone to act on your behalf in case they need to. Powers of Attorney can start or be effective either immediately or springing.

Health care Powers of Attorney, which allows someone to make health care decisions on your behalf, are effective only if you are not able to make decisions for yourself, whether that is because of a physical ailment, such as being unconscious, or a mental illness.

A financial Power of Attorney on the other hand can be effective immediately or springing. A financial Power of Attorney allows someone to make financial decisions on your behalf. If effective immediately, that means the moment it is signed the person can start making decisions on your behalf. If it is springing, the person can only make decisions on your behalf if you are unable to, again such as if you are unconscious or have a mental illness.

Whether to make it effective immediately or springing is an important decision. Most people choose to make if effective springing because they only want someone to make decisions on their behalf if they are unable to; however, some people do decide to have it effective immediately so their agent can make decisions right then and there and going forward. A lot of times this may be in the case of a person who is elderly or travels a lot.

When the Power of Attorney ends is another misconception. The Power of Attorney ends immediately upon death. That means your agent no longer has authority to make financial decisions on your behalf, whether that means writing checks, paying bills, or getting funds out of your account. As soon as you pass away, that authority transfers to the personal representative or executor under your Will or the trustee under your trust. If not planned properly, that could mean that the personal representative or executor may not have access to any of the decedent’s funds until a probate process is opened and the court grants that personal representative or executor with the proper authority to access those funds to pay your bills and final expenses, meaning weeks if not months of delay. Thus, proper planning can solve all of these issues.

If you have any questions regarding your Powers of Attorney or you do not have any please contact me.


© 2016 Matthew D. Brehmer and Crummey Estate Plan.


When are Powers of Attorney Required?

One common estate planning misconception is when powers of attorney are required.

Powers of attorney are required if you are determined to be incompetent. Incompetency can mean a mental illness or a physical ailment, such as being unconscious.  What a power of attorney does is grant someone with authority to make decisions on your behalf.

Most people don’t realize that a power of attorney is required even if it is your spouse or child. For your child, once they turn 18, a power of attorney is required for someone to make decisions on their behalf.

A spouse does not automatically have the right to make decisions on behalf of their significant other. In most cases this won’t matter since you are most likely a joint owner on their checking account anyway. However, for example, if you wanted to sell your home, you would need a power of attorney if your spouse is incompetent.

Without a power of attorney, the only other way to be granted with the required authority is to go through a relatively long and costly guardianship court procedure. A power of attorney is a simple way to fix this problem.

If you don’t have any powers of attorney in place or if you have any questions, please contact me.


© 2016 Matthew D. Brehmer and Crummey Estate Plan.

Lamar Odom: A Lesson to Learn

Currently the news is packed with stories about Lamar Odom’s recent “long weekend” and resulting medical problems (just Google it, you’ll find plenty of stories). The pertinent facts, however, are this: 1) Lamar Odom is unable to make healthcare decisions for himself; 2) he does not have a Living Will specifying what his healthcare wishes are; 3) we are unaware if he has a health care power of attorney; and 4) his recent divorce has not yet been finalized because of a backlog in the courts. Whether he has a healthcare power of attorney that just hasn’t been updated or he does not have one at all (and, thus, the law controls), his soon-to-be ex-wife, Khloe Kardashian, is responsible for making his healthcare decisions.

Having an Estate Plan (and an up-to-date estate plan) is essential to ensure that your wishes are carried out – whether it be who receives your assets after you pass, who controls your finances if you are unable, who makes your health care decisions if you are unable, etc.

When a major life event occurs, you should ALWAYS make sure to discuss the impact that life event may have on your estate plan with an experienced professional. Otherwise, like in the case of Lamar Odom, your soon-to-be ex-spouse may be making healthcare decisions for you (and possibly inheriting part of your estate if you pass away without an estate plan or an up-to-date estate plan)!

While there are plenty of lessons to learn in the recent news concerning Lamar Odom (again, just Google it), not having an estate plan or an up-to-date estate plan is definitely one that most people are guilty of themselves and can easily be remedied by speaking with an experienced professional.

For more thoughts on this issue, check out this article written by David H. Lenok and titled “Odom and Kardashian: Why Living Wills Matter

I hope this helps!


© 2015 Matthew D. Brehmer and Crummey Estate Plan.

The Foundation – Part 1: Wills and Powers of Attorney

Many of my posts so far have focused on what some may consider “higher level” estate planning; but, what about the estate plan foundation that everyone needs? In this three part series, I am going to briefly cover the fundamentals and foundation of estate planning and some of what I typically go through with a client during an initial estate planning meeting:

Part 1 – Last Wills & Testaments and Powers of Attorney
Part 2 – Basic Probate Avoidance Strategies
Part 3 – Joint Revocable Living Trusts

There are three fundamental and “foundational” estate planning documents that every single person age 18 and older should have: 1) a Durable Power of Attorney; 2) a Healthcare Power of Attorney; and 3) a Last Will & Testament. The two Powers of Attorney govern your affairs prior to your death, while the Last Will & Testament governs your affairs after your death.

Before Death

Generally speaking, as soon as a person turns 18 years old they no longer have a designated person to make decisions for them. That is why it is important, no matter if you are 18 or 80 years old, to have both a Durable Power of Attorney (DPOA) and Healthcare Power of Attorney (HCPOA) to designate an individual(s) to make decisions for you if you are unable to do so yourself.

You designate a person(s) to handle your financial affairs in a Durable Power of Attorney. Most DPOAs are very broad, giving the person you designated broad authority to handle your financial affairs – for instance, managing your bank accounts, paying your bills, managing your assets, filing your tax returns, etc. However, you can limit this authority if you wish to. Additionally, a DPOA can either be immediate or springing. An immediate DPOA is effective immediately, while a springing DPOA is effective only after you are determined to be incompetent or incapacitated and unable to handle your own financial affairs.

You designate a person(s) to handle your healthcare decisions in a Healthcare Power of Attorney. It is important to understand that, like the springing DPOA, a HCPOA is only effective if you are incapacitated and unable to make decisions for yourself; if you can make decisions for yourself, those decisions will control. Generally, a HCPOA grants your healthcare agent with a general authority to make healthcare decisions for you; for example, that you have shared your wishes with this person and that this person will honor those wishes and do what is in your best interests. However, typically some of the more “hot button” issues are covered specifically in the HCPOA. For instance, whether your agent may consent to mental health treatment, long term nursing home care, removing your feeding tube, and if you are pregnant, whether or not they may still make decisions for you.

Also, typically included in a HCPOA is a Living Will and HIPAA consent; although, these may be in separate documents as well. The Living Will is where you detail your wishes if you are in a coma, vegetative state, etc.; for example, whether or not you want every life saving measure taken to prolong your life or if you want the proverbial so-called “plug pulled.” HIPAA consent is where you consent to certain people having access to your medical records.

Without either or both of these Powers of Attorney, if you are determined to be incompetent or incapacitated and unable to handle your own affairs, a court will have to be petitioned to appoint someone to handle your affairs. This is time consuming, costly and the person appointed may not be the person you would have chosen to handle your affairs. Take for instance the Terri Schiavo case. Most people remember this case; it is where Terri Schiavo’s husband and parents argued for nearly 15 years on what she may or may not have wanted. Terri was in a vegetative state and her husband had petitioned the court to remove her feeding tubes, while her parents petitioned the court to keep her alive. Terri had no living will; therefore, it was up to a court to make the decision for her based on what they thought she would have wanted. It took 15 years! And, who knows if the court got it right. This is not the only case like this, it happens more often than you think. Save your family the trouble and burden of having to petition the court to make these decisions for you, contact a professional today to draft you the necessary Powers of Attorney.

After Death

Your Powers of Attorney will no longer be effective once you die. This is where your Last Will & Testament comes in and governs who handles your affairs (in some instances). I want to take this opportunity to clear up one of the biggest misconceptions I hear when it comes to Wills – A Will governs your estate, meaning that it details how your estate is going to be settled in probate, for instance, who is going to manage and administer your estate, who your estate is going to be divided among, who you want to be appointed guardian of any minor children, etc. The key word there was “probate.” Many people think that if you have a Will, you avoid probate. That is not true. Additionally, many people believe that all of your assets will be governed by or “go through” your Will when you die. That is also not true. In Part 2 of this series I will talk about the different strategies to avoid probate. And, if you implement one of these probate avoidance strategies, your Will will NOT control who inherits those assets when you die, the document you used to avoid probate will. This is very important to remember.

It is important for you to have a Will for many reasons. The three primary reasons for most individuals are: 1) you designate the person you want to administer your estate, 2) you designate the people or organizations that you want to inherit your estate (and how they inherit it) and 3) you designate the individuals you want appointed as the guardian of your minor children. If you do not have a Will, the court will have to designate a person to administer your estate and to be guardian of your minor children. This is not only time consuming and costly, the court may choose someone who you may not have chosen. And, the State, via its intestacy statute, will choose who will inherit your estate and when and how they inherit it. The intestacy statute is based on who the State thinks you would have wanted to inherit your estate if you had a Will. Again, this may not be the individuals you wanted to inherit your estate, and even if it was, you may have wanted to put some restrictions on and/or have some control over when and how they inherit it. The probate process can be long and costly enough with a Will, save your family the extra trouble and burden of having to probate your estate without a Will, contact an attorney today to draft your Last Will & Testament.


Any plan starts with a good and solid foundation, and that includes your estate plan. The estate planning documents that every person needs for a good and solid foundation is a Durable Power of Attorney, a Healthcare Power of Attorney and a Last Will & Testament. Until you have these, any other estate planning strategies may be fruitless and/or supported by a weak foundation. Make sure to check out Part 2 (Probate Avoidance) and Part 3 (Trusts) of this series when I post them. And, lastly, like with any topic I blog about, I am only scratching the surface of these topics, you must contact a professional in order to fully consider how these estate planning strategies will play out in your individual circumstances.

I hope this helps!



© 2015 Matthew D. Brehmer and Crummey Estate Plan.