estate

2017 Estate and Gift Tax Update – A Quick Snapshot

Every year I like to post a quick Estate and Gift Tax update for you to reference throughout the year. This way, if you’re anything like me, you won’t find yourself constantly “Googling” different estate and gift tax thresholds at the beginning of the year for a quick refresher on the updated thresholds. The purpose of this post is to provide a snapshot of some of the most common 2017 estate and gift tax thresholds, tax rates, exemptions, elections, etc. Feel free to use this how you see fit. Additionally, if you have any other commonly used 2017 estate and/or gift tax updates that I may have left off the list, please feel free to leave them in the comments.

Federal Gift Tax

  • Lifetime Exemption: $5,490,000
  • Annual Exclusion: $14,000
  • Gift-Splitting: Yes, if married and spouse consents (i.e., annual exclusion is $28,000 for married couples)
  • Rate: 40% on gifts above the lifetime exemption (plus the annual exclusion)

Federal Generation-Skipping Transfer Tax

  • Exemption: $5,490,000
  • Portability: No
  • Rate: 40% on generation-skipping transfers above the exemption

Federal Estate Tax

  • Exemption: $5,490,000 (exemption is decreased by lifetime gifts)
  • Portability: Yes (i.e., surviving spouse may elect to use deceased spouse’s unused exemption, in effect, giving married couples an exemption of $10,980,000)
  • Rate: 40% on the value of the estate above the exemption amount

Federal Income Tax for Trusts and Estates

  • Tax Brackets: see chart below
  • Tax Rates: see chart below
  • Net Investment Income Tax: A 3.8% surcharge tax on net investment income applies to trusts and estates that are above the $12,500 income threshold (i.e., the marginal tax rate on net investment income above that threshold is then 43.4%)
  • Distributable Net Income: Net income that is distributed to beneficiaries of a trust or estate is taxed at the beneficiaries’ level and not at the trust or estate’s level
Chart: Federal Income Taxation of Trusts and Estates
If Taxable Income is: The Tax is:
Not over $2,550 15% of the taxable income
Over $2,550 but not over $6,000 $382.50 plus 25% of the excess over $2,550
Over $6,000 but not over $9,150 $1,245.00 plus 28% of the excess over $6,000
Over $9,150 but not over $12,500 $2,127.00 plus 33% of the excess over $9,150
Over $12,500 $3,232.50 plus 39.6% of the excess over $12,500


State Taxes

Each State has its own set of rules when it comes to estate tax, gift tax, inheritance tax, and income taxation of trusts and estates. Be sure to check with a professional in your State for an update.

For a complete summary of all 2017 Federal tax-related inflation adjustments see Rev. Proc. 2016-55, available here: https://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-drop/rp-16-55.pdf.

I hope this helps!

-Matt

 

© 2016 Matthew D. Brehmer and Crummey Estate Plan.

When do Powers of Attorney Start and End?

One common estate planning misconception is when Powers of Attorney start and end. A Power of Attorney is a tool used to grant authority to someone to act on your behalf in case they need to. Powers of Attorney can start or be effective either immediately or springing.

Health care Powers of Attorney, which allows someone to make health care decisions on your behalf, are effective only if you are not able to make decisions for yourself, whether that is because of a physical ailment, such as being unconscious, or a mental illness.

A financial Power of Attorney on the other hand can be effective immediately or springing. A financial Power of Attorney allows someone to make financial decisions on your behalf. If effective immediately, that means the moment it is signed the person can start making decisions on your behalf. If it is springing, the person can only make decisions on your behalf if you are unable to, again such as if you are unconscious or have a mental illness.

Whether to make it effective immediately or springing is an important decision. Most people choose to make if effective springing because they only want someone to make decisions on their behalf if they are unable to; however, some people do decide to have it effective immediately so their agent can make decisions right then and there and going forward. A lot of times this may be in the case of a person who is elderly or travels a lot.

When the Power of Attorney ends is another misconception. The Power of Attorney ends immediately upon death. That means your agent no longer has authority to make financial decisions on your behalf, whether that means writing checks, paying bills, or getting funds out of your account. As soon as you pass away, that authority transfers to the personal representative or executor under your Will or the trustee under your trust. If not planned properly, that could mean that the personal representative or executor may not have access to any of the decedent’s funds until a probate process is opened and the court grants that personal representative or executor with the proper authority to access those funds to pay your bills and final expenses, meaning weeks if not months of delay. Thus, proper planning can solve all of these issues.

If you have any questions regarding your Powers of Attorney or you do not have any please contact me.

-Matt

© 2016 Matthew D. Brehmer and Crummey Estate Plan.

2016 Estate and Gift Tax Update – A Quick Snapshot

Last year it dawned on me that a lot of us out there, including myself, find ourselves constantly “Googleing” different estate and gift tax thresholds throughout the beginning of the year for a quick refresher on the updated thresholds. The purpose of this post is to provide a snapshot of some of the most common 2016 estate and gift tax thresholds, tax rates, exemptions, elections, etc. Feel free to use this how you see fit. Additionally, if you have any other commonly used 2016 estate and/or gift tax updates that I may have left off the list, please feel free to leave them in the comments.

Federal Gift Tax

  • Lifetime Exemption: $5,450,000
  • Annual Exclusion: $14,000
  • Gift-Splitting: Yes, if married and spouse consents (i.e., annual exclusion is $28,000 for married couples)
  • Rate: 40% on gifts above the lifetime exemption (plus the annual exclusion)

Federal Generation-Skipping Transfer Tax

  • Exemption: $5,450,000
  • Portability: No
  • Rate: 40% on generation-skipping transfers above the exemption

Federal Estate Tax

  • Exemption: $5,450,000 (exemption is decreased by lifetime gifts)
  • Portability: Yes (i.e., surviving spouse may elect to use deceased spouse’s unused exemption, in effect, giving married couples an exemption of $10,900,000)
  • Rate: 40% on the value of the estate above the exemption amount

Federal Income Tax for Trusts and Estates

  • Tax Brackets: see chart below
  • Tax Rates: see chart below
  • Net Investment Income Tax: A 3.8% surcharge tax on net investment income applies to trusts and estates that are above the $12,300 income threshold (i.e., the marginal tax rate on net investment income above that threshold is then 43.4%)
  • Distributable Net Income: Net income that is distributed to beneficiaries of a trust or estate is taxed at the beneficiaries’ level and not at the trust or estate’s level
Chart: Federal Income Taxation of Trusts and Estates
If Taxable Income is: The Tax is:
Not over $2,550 15% of the taxable income
Over $2,550 but not over $5,950 $382.50 plus 25% of the excess over $2,550
Over $5,950 but not over $9,050 $1,232.50 plus 28% of the excess over $5,950
Over $9,050 but not over $12,400 $2,100.50 plus 33% of the excess over $9,050
Over $12,400 $3,206 plus 39.6% of the excess over $12,400

State Taxes

Each State has its own set of rules when it comes to estate tax, gift tax, inheritance tax, and income taxation of trusts and estates. Be sure to check with a professional in your State for an update.

For a complete summary of all 2016 Federal tax-related inflation adjustments see Rev. Proc. 2015-53, available here: https://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-drop/rp-15-53.pdf.

I hope this helps!

-Matt

 

© 2015 Matthew D. Brehmer and Crummey Estate Plan.

Lamar Odom: A Lesson to Learn

Currently the news is packed with stories about Lamar Odom’s recent “long weekend” and resulting medical problems (just Google it, you’ll find plenty of stories). The pertinent facts, however, are this: 1) Lamar Odom is unable to make healthcare decisions for himself; 2) he does not have a Living Will specifying what his healthcare wishes are; 3) we are unaware if he has a health care power of attorney; and 4) his recent divorce has not yet been finalized because of a backlog in the courts. Whether he has a healthcare power of attorney that just hasn’t been updated or he does not have one at all (and, thus, the law controls), his soon-to-be ex-wife, Khloe Kardashian, is responsible for making his healthcare decisions.

Having an Estate Plan (and an up-to-date estate plan) is essential to ensure that your wishes are carried out – whether it be who receives your assets after you pass, who controls your finances if you are unable, who makes your health care decisions if you are unable, etc.

When a major life event occurs, you should ALWAYS make sure to discuss the impact that life event may have on your estate plan with an experienced professional. Otherwise, like in the case of Lamar Odom, your soon-to-be ex-spouse may be making healthcare decisions for you (and possibly inheriting part of your estate if you pass away without an estate plan or an up-to-date estate plan)!

While there are plenty of lessons to learn in the recent news concerning Lamar Odom (again, just Google it), not having an estate plan or an up-to-date estate plan is definitely one that most people are guilty of themselves and can easily be remedied by speaking with an experienced professional.

For more thoughts on this issue, check out this article written by David H. Lenok and titled “Odom and Kardashian: Why Living Wills Matter

I hope this helps!

-Matt

© 2015 Matthew D. Brehmer and Crummey Estate Plan.

Medicaid Planning: The Fundamentals

Below is a one page summary regarding Medicaid Planning in Wisconsin that we provide our clients with when discussing Medicaid Planning (the laws regarding Medicaid Planning may be different in your State). It should be noted that, much like tax and estate planning, an experienced professional should be consulted if you are thinking about engaging in any Medicaid Planning. It is an extremely complex set of rules and requires up-to-date knowledge (all of the below information is only current and accurate as of September 2015; after such date the information may no longer be current and accurate).

Prior to Applying for Medicaid: The Lookback Period

  • 5 years prior to the date of the Medicaid application
  • All gifts (or divestments) during that lookback period will cause a penalty
  • Penalty calculation:
    • Total amount of gifts (or divestments) divided by average cost of care
      • Average cost of care is $252.95/day
    • Example: You make a $20,000 gift to your child and apply for Medicaid 4 years later.
      • Penalty period: $20,000 divided by $252.95
      • Penalty period = 79.067 days (or just over 2½ months)
    • Therefore, you will not qualify for Medicaid assistance for at least 79 days from the date of application and will have to arrange for care or payment for care yourself.

While Receiving Medicaid: The Resource Limits

  • Resource Limits for Single Persons (or if both spouses apply for Medicaid):
    • Asset Limit: $2,000
    • Irrevocable Burial Trust: $3,000
    • Life Insurance – Face Amount: $1,500
    • Income: $45/month
  • Resource Limits for Couples (if only one spouse is applying for Medicaid and the other spouse remains in the community):
    • Assets: One-half of total countable assets
      • However, not less than $50,000 nor more than $119,220
    • Income: Minimum Monthly Needs Allowance (MMNA) is $2,655/month
  • Exempt Assets:
    • For the Medicaid Applicant –
      • A vehicle
      • Primary residence (if plan to return home or if spouse lives in home)
      • Burial space
    • For Community Spouse (non-Medicaid applicant) –
      • All of the Community Spouse’s retirement assets

After You Pass Away: Estate Recovery – Under certain circumstances, the State of Wisconsin can place liens on your assets and/or recover remaining assets from your Estate after your death.

Planning Opportunities:

  • Self-insure
  • Long-term care insurance
  • Gifting (or divestments) either outright or in trust
  • Other planning opportunities (for example, purchasing annuities, life care agreements, etc.)

I hope this helps!

-Matt

 

© 2015 Matthew D. Brehmer and Crummey Estate Plan.

The Foundation – Part 2: Probate Avoidance

Continuing with Part 2 of this three part series, I am going to briefly cover some of the most popular probate avoidance strategies. As a refresher, the purpose of this series is to cover the fundamentals and foundation of estate planning and some of what I typically go through with a client during an initial estate planning consultation, including the following topics:

Part 1 – Last Wills & Testaments and Powers of Attorney
Part 2 – Basic Probate Avoidance Strategies
Part 3 – Joint Revocable Living Trusts

For purposes of this post, it is extremely important to remember that if any of the following probate avoidance measures are used with respect to any of your assets, the distribution of those assets upon your death will NO LONGER be controlled by your Last Will & Testament. The designation or form you used to avoid probate will now control the distribution of that asset upon your death. This is one of many reasons why it is important to talk to an experienced professional when drafting your estate plan; the experienced professional can work with you to ensure that your entire estate plan (i.e., your Will, your beneficiary designations, etc.) works together to achieve your desired goals and results.

Example: The “Average” Estate

A significant portion of most individuals’ estates are made up of the following assets: a house, bank accounts, retirement/brokerage accounts, life insurance, an automobile and tangible personal property (e.g., your household furnishings, antiques, collectibles, etc.). By implementing a few of the probate avoidance strategies below, most individuals will have the peace of mind in knowing that a significant portion of their estate, if not all of it, will avoid probate.

And, even if not all of the assets avoid probate (e.g., like the car and the tangible personal property), if those remaining probate assets are below a certain threshold amount, your State may still provide a way to transfer those assets without the need for probate after your death (e.g., in Wisconsin, if you probate assets are under $50,000, they can be transferred by affidavit and probate can be avoided). This should be a goal for almost all estate plans – to at least have the value of your probate assets below the probate threshold amount in your State.

Joint Ownership

Generally, any assets held and titled as joint ownership property pass to the survivor of the joint owners outside of probate. Common assets that can be held jointly include bank accounts and real estate. However, keep in mind that the asset will pass fully to the survivor, even if you wish it to go to someone else.

Beneficiary Designations

Any assets where you can and do designate a beneficiary will pass to the beneficiary outside of probate. Common assets where beneficiary designations are used include retirement accounts (e.g., pension plans, 401(k)s, IRAs), life insurance policies and brokerage accounts. If you wish to designate a beneficiary to any of these types of accounts, you can do so by requesting a beneficiary change form from your account administrator.

Payable on Death Accounts

Similar to beneficiary designations, payable on death accounts allow you to designate a beneficiary of that particular account. If such a beneficiary is designated, that account will pass to the beneficiary outside of probate upon your death. Payable on death accounts are particularly useful when it comes to your bank accounts. Most banks (if not all) will allow you to name a beneficiary to your bank account, you just need to speak to your banker.

Transfer on Death Designations

Again, similar to beneficiary designations, transfer on death designations are used to pass interests in property upon your death to a named beneficiary without the need for probate. The most common use of transfer on death designations are for real estate and business interests. This type of probate avoidance strategy will usually involve seeing an attorney to draft the transfer on death designation.

Marital Property Agreements (with Washington Will provisions)

For married couples in some States, marital property agreements with Washington Will provisions can be used to pass all of the decedent spouse’s property to the surviving spouse upon the death of the first spouse without the need for probate. If otherwise consistent with your estate plan, this can make the time and expenses involved at the first spouse’s death much easier to cope with. However, only some States allow for this type of probate avoidance strategy. This will also require you to see an attorney to draft the agreement.

Trusts

Any assets held in trust will also pass to (or be held for) the beneficiary of the trust without the need for probate. Generally, almost any asset can be held in trust; thus, this can provide a lot of flexibility and the most overall probate avoidance. Additionally, this will also require an attorney to draft the trust agreement. In Part 3 of this series I will focus solely on trusts so be sure to check that out once I post it.

Recap: The “Average” Estate

Above I stated that a significant portion of most individuals’ estates are made up of the following assets: a house, bank accounts, retirement/brokerage accounts, life insurance, an automobile and tangible personal property. The following is a recap of the probate avoidance strategies that can be used to pass those assets to your heirs without the need for probate:

  • House – joint ownership, transfer on death designations, and trusts.
  • Bank accounts – joint ownership, payable on death accounts, and trusts.
  • Retirement/brokerage accounts – joint ownership, beneficiary designations, and trusts.
  • Life insurance – beneficiary designations and trusts.
  • Automobile and tangible personal property – joint ownership and trusts.

Conclusion

As you can see, there are multiple ways to avoid probate in regards to a particular asset and among your entire estate. The strategy and combination of strategies chosen will be different for every individual; some strategies may provide more advantages than other strategies depending on your individual circumstances. Additionally, many of the above probate avoidance strategies can be achieved for relatively little cost and time while saving your estate and your heirs A LOT of time and expense after you pass.

However, like I stated in Part 1, any plan starts with a good and solid foundation, and that includes your estate plan. That means that even if you engage in the above probate avoidance strategies, you still need to have a Last Will & Testament to “catch” those assets that you may have missed or that could have fallen outside the probate avoidance measures you took. Probate avoidance strategies must be integrated into an already existing solid estate plan; otherwise, the benefits and advantages such strategies provide will be diminished.

Make sure to check out Part 3 (Trusts) of this series when I post it. And, lastly, like with any topic I blog about, I am only scratching the surface of these topics, you must contact a professional in order to fully consider how these estate planning strategies will play out in your individual circumstances.

I hope this helps!

-Matt

 

© 2015 Matthew D. Brehmer and Crummey Estate Plan.

The Foundation – Part 1: Wills and Powers of Attorney

Many of my posts so far have focused on what some may consider “higher level” estate planning; but, what about the estate plan foundation that everyone needs? In this three part series, I am going to briefly cover the fundamentals and foundation of estate planning and some of what I typically go through with a client during an initial estate planning meeting:

Part 1 – Last Wills & Testaments and Powers of Attorney
Part 2 – Basic Probate Avoidance Strategies
Part 3 – Joint Revocable Living Trusts

There are three fundamental and “foundational” estate planning documents that every single person age 18 and older should have: 1) a Durable Power of Attorney; 2) a Healthcare Power of Attorney; and 3) a Last Will & Testament. The two Powers of Attorney govern your affairs prior to your death, while the Last Will & Testament governs your affairs after your death.

Before Death

Generally speaking, as soon as a person turns 18 years old they no longer have a designated person to make decisions for them. That is why it is important, no matter if you are 18 or 80 years old, to have both a Durable Power of Attorney (DPOA) and Healthcare Power of Attorney (HCPOA) to designate an individual(s) to make decisions for you if you are unable to do so yourself.

You designate a person(s) to handle your financial affairs in a Durable Power of Attorney. Most DPOAs are very broad, giving the person you designated broad authority to handle your financial affairs – for instance, managing your bank accounts, paying your bills, managing your assets, filing your tax returns, etc. However, you can limit this authority if you wish to. Additionally, a DPOA can either be immediate or springing. An immediate DPOA is effective immediately, while a springing DPOA is effective only after you are determined to be incompetent or incapacitated and unable to handle your own financial affairs.

You designate a person(s) to handle your healthcare decisions in a Healthcare Power of Attorney. It is important to understand that, like the springing DPOA, a HCPOA is only effective if you are incapacitated and unable to make decisions for yourself; if you can make decisions for yourself, those decisions will control. Generally, a HCPOA grants your healthcare agent with a general authority to make healthcare decisions for you; for example, that you have shared your wishes with this person and that this person will honor those wishes and do what is in your best interests. However, typically some of the more “hot button” issues are covered specifically in the HCPOA. For instance, whether your agent may consent to mental health treatment, long term nursing home care, removing your feeding tube, and if you are pregnant, whether or not they may still make decisions for you.

Also, typically included in a HCPOA is a Living Will and HIPAA consent; although, these may be in separate documents as well. The Living Will is where you detail your wishes if you are in a coma, vegetative state, etc.; for example, whether or not you want every life saving measure taken to prolong your life or if you want the proverbial so-called “plug pulled.” HIPAA consent is where you consent to certain people having access to your medical records.

Without either or both of these Powers of Attorney, if you are determined to be incompetent or incapacitated and unable to handle your own affairs, a court will have to be petitioned to appoint someone to handle your affairs. This is time consuming, costly and the person appointed may not be the person you would have chosen to handle your affairs. Take for instance the Terri Schiavo case. Most people remember this case; it is where Terri Schiavo’s husband and parents argued for nearly 15 years on what she may or may not have wanted. Terri was in a vegetative state and her husband had petitioned the court to remove her feeding tubes, while her parents petitioned the court to keep her alive. Terri had no living will; therefore, it was up to a court to make the decision for her based on what they thought she would have wanted. It took 15 years! And, who knows if the court got it right. This is not the only case like this, it happens more often than you think. Save your family the trouble and burden of having to petition the court to make these decisions for you, contact a professional today to draft you the necessary Powers of Attorney.

After Death

Your Powers of Attorney will no longer be effective once you die. This is where your Last Will & Testament comes in and governs who handles your affairs (in some instances). I want to take this opportunity to clear up one of the biggest misconceptions I hear when it comes to Wills – A Will governs your estate, meaning that it details how your estate is going to be settled in probate, for instance, who is going to manage and administer your estate, who your estate is going to be divided among, who you want to be appointed guardian of any minor children, etc. The key word there was “probate.” Many people think that if you have a Will, you avoid probate. That is not true. Additionally, many people believe that all of your assets will be governed by or “go through” your Will when you die. That is also not true. In Part 2 of this series I will talk about the different strategies to avoid probate. And, if you implement one of these probate avoidance strategies, your Will will NOT control who inherits those assets when you die, the document you used to avoid probate will. This is very important to remember.

It is important for you to have a Will for many reasons. The three primary reasons for most individuals are: 1) you designate the person you want to administer your estate, 2) you designate the people or organizations that you want to inherit your estate (and how they inherit it) and 3) you designate the individuals you want appointed as the guardian of your minor children. If you do not have a Will, the court will have to designate a person to administer your estate and to be guardian of your minor children. This is not only time consuming and costly, the court may choose someone who you may not have chosen. And, the State, via its intestacy statute, will choose who will inherit your estate and when and how they inherit it. The intestacy statute is based on who the State thinks you would have wanted to inherit your estate if you had a Will. Again, this may not be the individuals you wanted to inherit your estate, and even if it was, you may have wanted to put some restrictions on and/or have some control over when and how they inherit it. The probate process can be long and costly enough with a Will, save your family the extra trouble and burden of having to probate your estate without a Will, contact an attorney today to draft your Last Will & Testament.

Conclusion

Any plan starts with a good and solid foundation, and that includes your estate plan. The estate planning documents that every person needs for a good and solid foundation is a Durable Power of Attorney, a Healthcare Power of Attorney and a Last Will & Testament. Until you have these, any other estate planning strategies may be fruitless and/or supported by a weak foundation. Make sure to check out Part 2 (Probate Avoidance) and Part 3 (Trusts) of this series when I post them. And, lastly, like with any topic I blog about, I am only scratching the surface of these topics, you must contact a professional in order to fully consider how these estate planning strategies will play out in your individual circumstances.

I hope this helps!

-Matt

 

© 2015 Matthew D. Brehmer and Crummey Estate Plan.

Charitable Remainder Trusts – Lifetime income for you, tax control now, and a gift to charity at the end

Recently, Appleton Group LLC partnered with our Firm, Remley & Sensenbrenner, to produce a brief informational video on a powerful estate planning tool called a Charitable Remainder Trust (CRT). A CRT can help you accomplish three goals: provide lifetime income for you and your family, control taxes now and fund your favorite charities at the end of the trust. Check out the video below…

2015 Estate and Gift Tax Update – A Quick Snapshot

It recently dawned on me that a lot of us out there, including myself, find ourselves constantly “Googleing” different estate and gift tax thresholds throughout the beginning of the year for a quick refresher on the updated thresholds. The purpose of this post is to provide a snapshot of some of the most common 2015 estate and gift tax thresholds, tax rates, exemptions, elections, etc. Feel free to use this how you see fit. Additionally, if you have any other commonly used 2015 estate and/or gift tax updates that I may have left off the list, feel free to leave them in the comments.

Federal Gift Tax

  • Lifetime Exemption: $5,430,000
  • Annual Exclusion: $14,000
  • Gift-Splitting: Yes, if married and spouse consents (i.e., annual exclusion is $28,000 for married couples)
  • Rate: 40% on gifts above the lifetime exemption (plus the annual exclusion)

Federal Generation-Skipping Transfer Tax

  • Exemption: $5,430,000
  • Portability: No
  • Rate: 40% on generation-skipping transfers above the exemption

Federal Estate Tax

  • Exemption: $5,430,000 (exemption is decreased by lifetime gifts)
  • Portability: Yes (i.e., surviving spouse may elect to use deceased spouse’s unused exemption, in effect, giving married couples an exemption of $10,860,000)
  • Rate: 40% on the value of the estate above the exemption amount

Federal Income Tax for Trusts and Estates

  • Tax Brackets: see chart below
  • Tax Rates: see chart below
  • Net Investment Income Tax: A 3.8% surcharge tax on net investment income applies to trusts and estates that are above the $12,300 income threshold (i.e., the marginal tax rate on net investment income above that threshold is then 43.4%)
  • Distributable Net Income: Net income that is distributed to beneficiaries of a trust or estate is taxed at the beneficiaries’ level and not at the trust or estate’s level

Chart: Federal Income Taxation of Trusts and Estates

If Taxable Income is: The Tax is:
Not over $2,500 15% of the taxable income
Over $2,500 but not over $5,900 $375 plus 25% of the excess over $2,500
Over $5,900 but not over $9,050 $1,225 plus 28% of the excess over $5,900
Over $9,050 but not over $12,300 $2,107 plus 33% of the excess over $9,050
Over $12,300 $3,179.50 plus 39.6% of the excess over $12,300

State Taxes

Each State has its own set of rules when it comes to estate tax, gift tax, inheritance tax, and income taxation of trusts and estates. Be sure to check with a professional in your State for an update.

For a complete summary of all 2015 Federal tax-related inflation adjustments see Rev. Proc. 2014-61, available here: http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-drop/rp-14-61.pdf

I hope this helps!

-Matt

© 2015 Matthew D. Brehmer and Crummey Estate Plan.

Lifetime Gifts: An Important Estate Planning Technique (Part 2)

In Part 1 of this post, I focused on the similarities and differences between making annual gifts and making lifetime exemption gifts. Here, in Part 2 of this post, I will focus on the following reasons why it may still be important to consider making lifetime gifts:  

  • To minimize estate taxes;
  • To engage in Medicaid planning;
  • To provide for your loved ones during your lifetime; and
  • To decrease the size of your estate for easier estate administration after your death.

Minimize Estate Tax

Currently, in 2015, the estate tax exemption amount is $5.43 million. That combined with your spouse’s lifetime exemption amount if you are married, comes to $10.86 million. Therefore, for a vast majority of the population, minimizing estate tax is not even going to be on the radar. However, even though this exemption is permanent and indexed for inflation currently (and has been since 2010), Congress could always repeal it and lower the exemption amount; for instance, just seven years ago the exemption was only $2 million and if you look back another ten years before that, it was only $625,000. If Congress chose to go back to the “good old days,” a lot more of us would be subject to the estate tax. Keep that in mind.

For those of you who are unlucky enough (or, maybe I should say lucky enough) to be above the estate tax exemption, lifetime gifting is a great strategy to minimize estate taxes. Basically, by gifting assets away during your lifetime, either through annual gifts or lifetime exemption gifts, you are in essence “freezing” part of your estate. Consider the two following examples:

Example 1: You and your spouse have a $20 million estate today. You both live another 20 years, during which time your estate earns 6% annual interest and is now valued at about $64 million. Assuming the estate tax exemption increases at 3% during that same time, your combined estate tax exemption amount is about $19.5 million. Therefore, about $44.5 million of your estate will be subject to estate tax, which comes to about $17.8 million in estate taxes (at a 40% estate tax rate).

Example 2: You and your spouse have a $20 million estate today. Using $10 million of your combined estate tax exemption amount, you make a lifetime gift of $10 million, bringing the value of your estate down to $10 million. Assuming the same 6% interest, after 20 years, your estate is now worth about $32 million. And, assuming the same estate tax exemption amount as in Example 1 (about $19.5 million twenty years from now), you would have about $9.5 million of combined estate tax exemption left to use ($19.5 million – $10 million previously used). Therefore, about $22.5 million of you estate will be subject to estate tax, which comes to about $9 million in estate taxes.

As you can see from the two examples above, by making a lifetime gift, you can save a substantial amount in estate taxes; $8.8 million in the examples above. Furthermore, the two examples above are stripped down for ease of illustration; if you took annual gifts into account each year and also used up the increase in the lifetime exemption amount each year, the savings would be even more substantial (plus there are many other strategies that can make lifetime gifting even more effective, e.g., by applying discounts to certain assets when gifting).

The main reason why this works so well is because your estate is typically going to grow at a faster rate than the estate tax exemption amount (and the greater the arbitrage, the greater the effect lifetime gifting can have on your eventual estate tax liability). Basically, meaning that, when you make a lifetime gift and rid your estate of that asset, you also rid your estate of the accumulation that the asset is going to make over your remaining lifetime. So you are in effect, freezing the value of that asset and the amount of your lifetime exemption that it is going to offset.

However, there is one major caveat to consider here and when considering any other reason to make lifetime gifts. When you die with an asset in your estate, the asset receives a step-up in basis. When you gift an asset during your lifetime, the asset has a carry-over basis. Below are two examples that illustrate the difference:

Example 1: Years ago you bought an asset for $10. It is now worth $100. The day before you die you gift it to your child. Your child then receives a carry-over basis of $10. If your child were to sell that asset when it is worth $110, your child would be subject to long-term capital gains tax on $100 ($110 – $10).

Example 2: Years ago you bought an asset for $10. It is now worth $100. You die with the asset and bequest it to your child. Your child then receives a step-up in basis of $100. If your child were to sell that asset when it is worth $110, your child would be subject to long-term capital gains tax on only $10 ($110 – $100).

As you can imagine, that difference plays a major role when considering lifetime gifting. In some instances, it may be a deal breaker, and in others, it may not affect the decision as much. For instance, if you will be subject to estate taxes, it may be more beneficial to reduce your estate before you die even if your child would be subject to more capital gains tax on that asset because the highest long-term capital gains tax rate is only 23.8% (which includes the net investment income tax) compared to a 40% estate tax rate. However, if you are not subject to the estate tax, it may be more beneficial to keep low basis and high growth assets in your estate so that when you pass away, those assets will receive a step-up in basis and save your heirs substantial amounts in long-term capital gains tax.

Medicaid Planning

Nursing home costs are a major concern for many (and, with good reason, the national average nursing home costs are around $6,500 a month).  Long-term nursing home care can wipe out your entire estate pretty quickly. Therefore, Medicaid planning has become a large part of estate planning today. And, one of the most used Medicaid planning strategies is lifetime gifting.

Each State has its own complex set of rules when it comes to Medicaid planning with lifetime gifting and the rules are forever changing so it is important to contact an expert when considering this strategy. However, the basic strategy is this – to gift away your assets prior to the Medicaid look back period (depending on your State that look back period could be 3 years, 5 years, or some other time period).

There are a number of risks associated with lifetime gifting that are especially pertinent here. Once you’ve made a gift it is irrevocable. Meaning that the person you gave the gift to now owns it. You cannot get it back. Furthermore, the person who you gave the gift to is now at risk of losing it; for example, to creditors, to a divorcing spouse, to different heirs if they pass away, etc. This means that the person you gave the gift to may not be able to support you later on should you need it.

All of these risks are heightened during Medicaid planning. This is because if you don’t make it past the look back period, you will be hit with a penalty period based on the gifts given during that look back period. During that penalty period you will not receive support from Medicaid for nursing home costs, which could really leave you in a tough spot if you have no other access to support. Furthermore, if you never end up needing Medicaid and living a long life outside of a nursing home (like we all hope), you may no longer have enough to support yourself because you gifted it all away. Therefore, lifetime gifting as a Medicaid planning technique must be discussed with an expert to ensure you are weighing all of the benefits and risks associated with it.

Providing for Loved Ones During Life

Lifetime gifting may be a great way to provide for your loved ones during your lifetime. If an annual gift is less than $14,000 to any one person, not only will there be no tax liability, there is no requirement to file a Gift Tax Return. Even if the gift is greater than $14,000, there will be no tax liability so long as you have not used up your entire current lifetime exemption amount of $5.43 million. However, you will be required to file a Gift Tax Return to report a gift greater than $14,000 to any one person within the same year.

Lifetime gifts can be a great way for people to support their loved ones during their lifetimes without the fear of tax consequences or added responsibilities (like filing another tax return). However, you do need to consider the carry-over basis versus step-up in basis discussion above if gifting securities and/or property as opposed to cash.

Ease of Estate Administration at Death

Lifetime gifting may also be a great way to ease the administration of your estate at the time of your death. Typically, the smaller the estate, the easier it is to administer it at death. Furthermore, the type of assets that are held in your estate at the time of your death can determine how easy or how cumbersome administering your estate will be. If your estate is made up of entirely nonprobate assets, then administering your estate will be relatively easy. However, if you estate is made up of many different probate assets, then administering your estate will become more cumbersome and expensive.

By making lifetime gifts that reduce the value of your estate and rid your estate of probate assets, you can really lift some of the burden and costs that fall on your loved ones when having to administer your estate after your death. Again, however, you do need to consider the carry-over basis versus step-up in basis discussion above. Furthermore, you do not want to diminish your estate to a level where it becomes difficult for you to live day-to-day.

Conclusion

As you can see from above, lifetime gift planning is still very much alive in estate planning today. And, this holds true even for those who are not concerned about estate taxes. However, there are many things that need to be considered before making a lifetime gift and they should be discussed with an expert. But, if after weighing all of the risks and benefits, the scales are tipped in your favor, lifetime gifting can provide an important estate planning technique that starts to take effect prior to much of your other estate planning.

Thanks for reading!

-Matt

© 2015 Matthew D. Brehmer and Crummey Estate Plan.