gift tax

GOP Tax Reform Proposal

The GOP has released its “Unified Framework for Fixing Our Broken Tax Code”.  Unfortunately, the framework is heavy on generalities and light on specifics, so there is still a long way to go.  Nonetheless, I wanted to take this opportunity to discuss the proposals, and provide some observations, as follows:

Standard Deduction/Personal Exemptions.  The plan roughly doubles the existing standard deduction – making it $24,000 for married taxpayers filing jointly (as compared to $12,700 under current law), and $12,000 for single taxpayers ($6,375 under current law).  In doing so, however, the former personal exemptions for the taxpayers (currently $4,050 per person) are eliminated.  The idea behind this increased deduction is to exclude more income, thus reducing the tax burden and even reducing the number of taxpayers required to file a tax return.

Observation 1 – By eliminating the personal exemptions and increasing the standard deduction, the plan results in only a modest increase in the aggregate deduction, shown as follows:

                                                                     Single Taxpayers                   Married Filing Jointly 

                                                                   Current       Proposed               Current           Proposed

Standard Deduction                           $   6,350       $ 12,000              $ 12,700          $ 24,000

Personal Exemptions                          $   4,050       $          0              $   8,100          $          0

Total Deduction/Exemptions           $ 10,400       $ 12,000              $ 20,800          $ 24,000

Observation 2 – The above example assumes no children or other dependents. If you include one dependent in the above example, the Personal Exemption amounts would go to $8,100 and $12,150 respectively. Thus, the Total Deductions/Exemptions for a single person with one dependent would be $14,450; and for a married couple with one dependent it would be $24,850. Therefore, with only one dependent, under the current law the amount of the aggregate deduction would be higher than the new standard deduction under the proposed law.

Observation 3 – The standard deduction benefits only those taxpayer who do not itemize their deductions.  In other words, if a taxpayer does not have itemized deductions in excess of the standard deduction, then they can claim the standard deduction.  If, on the other hand, the taxpayer’s itemized deductions are in excess of the standard deduction, the taxpayer would forego the standard deduction and choose instead to itemize.  Under current law, a taxpayer who itemizes deductions would nonetheless still receive the benefit of the personal exemptions (although taxpayers with adjusted gross incomes in excess of $313,800 for MFJ and $261,500 for individual saw those exemptions phased out).  Taxpayers who itemize under the proposed law will no longer receive the benefit of the personal exemptions, thus lowering their aggregate deduction.

Planning Idea – Taxpayers whose itemized deductions in any given year are close to the standard deduction amount will want to consider doubling up the payment of itemized deductions every other year.  The idea would be to itemize in year one, take the standard deduction in year two, itemize again in year 3, and so on.  This will maximize the total deductions benefitting the taxpayer.

Individual Income Tax Rates.  Under current law, the income tax rates on individuals consist of seven brackets – 10%, 15%, 25%, 28%, 33%, 35% and 39.6%.  The proposal is to reduce this to three brackets – 12%, 25% and 35%.  The lowest bracket is higher under the proposal than under current law; however, the idea is that the increased standard deduction and the increased child tax credit (discussed later) will offset any additional cost.

The proposal also leaves open the possibility of an additional top tax rate on the highest-income taxpayers, although there is no indication of a proposed tax rate or the income threshold over which that rate would apply.

Observation 4 – There is no indication of the income thresholds to which each of the newly-proposed brackets would apply.  As a result, there is no way to compare the tax burden under the current law versus the proposed law.

Observation 5 – There is also a provision whereby the individual income tax rate on business income from small businesses operated as sole proprietorships, partnerships, or S corporations would be limited to a maximum of 25%.  This is to reduce the tax burden on the owners of small businesses that operate as pass-through entities.  It is unclear how the proposed law will define the distinction between business income and non-business income for this purpose.

Child Tax Credit.  The proposal is to increase the amount of the refundable and non-refundable child tax credit for low and middle-income taxpayers, and to increase the threshold of income levels at which this credit is phased out.  However, the plan proposal specifies neither the amount of the credit, nor the applicable income threshold.

Middle Class Tax Relief.  The proposal contains a sentence stating “the committees will work on additional measures to meaningfully reduce the tax burden on the middle-class.”  The proposal provides no specifics in this regard, nor what will be considered “middle-class.”

Alternative Minimum Tax.  The alternative minimum tax (AMT) has become an increasing problem for many taxpayers over the last couple of decades.  The AMT was originally designed to ensure that high income taxpayers pay at least a minimum amount of tax.  With much tinkering over the years, the AMT now impacts many more taxpayers than it was ever designed to do.  The proposal would repeal the AMT.

Observation 6 – The AMT effectively disallowed the deduction of certain itemized deductions for those taxpayers who were subject to the AMT.  Many of these taxpayers have been deferring the payment of itemized deductions because the AMT disallowed  deductions such as state income taxes, investment fees, etc., and there was the hope of a repeal.  The repeal of the AMT might benefit those persons who have been deferring these payments; however, many of these itemized deductions are now on the chopping block under the proposal anyway (see below).

Itemized Deductions.  The proposal indicates it will eliminate most itemized deductions, retaining only the deductions for home mortgage interest deduction and charitable contributions.  Most notably, the deduction for state income taxes paid would be eliminated.

Observation 7 – The proposal does not specify an effective date for the repeal of the itemized deductions.  I believe it is unlikely this change would be retroactive to January 1, 2017.  However, it could be effective as of the date the proposal was released (September 27, 2017), or perhaps prospectively from the date of passage of a new law, or some specified date thereafter.

Planning Idea – It may be beneficial to accelerate the payment of the itemized deductions that will be repealed, in order to obtain a tax benefit in 2017 for those deductions.  There is a risk, however, that those deductions may be of no benefit if the effective date of the repeal is prior to their payment.

Work, Education and Retirement.  The proposal says it will retain tax benefits that encourage work, higher education, and retirement security, and that the committees are encouraged to simplify these benefits.  There are no further specifics in this regard.

I have, however, heard other proposals regarding retirement accounts, specifically Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs). Under current tax law, if a beneficiary inherits an IRA, then that beneficiary may be able to “stretch” that IRA out over that beneficiary’s lifetime, thereby allowing tax deferral of that IRA. However, I have heard that there is a proposal to eliminate this “stretch out” and require the beneficiary to instead liquidate the IRA within five years of the original IRA owner’s death, thereby accelerating recognition of the IRA within that five year period. This could have a significant impact on IRA beneficiary planning in the future.

Estate Tax Repeal.  The proposal is to eliminate the estate tax and the generation-skipping transfer tax.  It does not, however, eliminate the gift tax (the proposal is silent on the gift tax). I plan to expand on the impact of this in a later Blog Post.

Observation 8 – Under current law, an asset held by a decedent at death, and included in the decedent’s estate, is allowed a step-up in the cost basis of that asset to its fair market value on the date of death.  This effectively erased any pre-death appreciation on these assets that would otherwise be subject to capital gain tax. There is no mention in the proposal whether this step-up in basis would still be allowed, or whether the basis of the decedent would instead carry over to the beneficiaries, or whether there would be a forced recognition of gain at death.

Observation 9 – Under current law, the gift tax and estate tax enjoyed a lifetime exemption effectively precluding tax on the first $5,490,000 of transfers (in excess of annual exclusions and indexed for inflation each year).  While it appears the gift tax would remain in effect, there is no indication whether the amount of annual exclusion (currently $14,000 for 2017) or the lifetime exemption would remain the same, or become an entirely different amount.

Tax Rate Structure for C Corporations.  The proposal is to reduce the maximum tax rate on “C” corporations to 20%.  This is below the average tax rate for the industrialized world and is intended to keep companies from moving operations overseas.

Expensing of Capital Investments.  The proposal is to allow the immediate expensing of capital investments (other than structures) for depreciable assets purchased and placed in service any time during the five year period following September 27, 2017.

Repatriation.  There are also some proposals to encourage the repatriation of money currently held overseas by U.S. companies, as well as to discourage U.S. companies from leaving the U.S.  There is little specificity with regard to these proposals.

I had hoped, by this time this year, we would have a more specific idea of the proposed tax laws, such that we could begin the implementation of some tax planning ideas.  Unfortunately, it appears we have a long way to go before these proposals become law.  It is likely some of these proposals will be tweaked, others deleted, and still others added.

To read the Tax Proposal yourself click Here.

I hope this helps!

-Matt

 

© 2017 Matthew D. Brehmer and Crummey Estate Plan.

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2016 Estate and Gift Tax Update – A Quick Snapshot

Last year it dawned on me that a lot of us out there, including myself, find ourselves constantly “Googleing” different estate and gift tax thresholds throughout the beginning of the year for a quick refresher on the updated thresholds. The purpose of this post is to provide a snapshot of some of the most common 2016 estate and gift tax thresholds, tax rates, exemptions, elections, etc. Feel free to use this how you see fit. Additionally, if you have any other commonly used 2016 estate and/or gift tax updates that I may have left off the list, please feel free to leave them in the comments.

Federal Gift Tax

  • Lifetime Exemption: $5,450,000
  • Annual Exclusion: $14,000
  • Gift-Splitting: Yes, if married and spouse consents (i.e., annual exclusion is $28,000 for married couples)
  • Rate: 40% on gifts above the lifetime exemption (plus the annual exclusion)

Federal Generation-Skipping Transfer Tax

  • Exemption: $5,450,000
  • Portability: No
  • Rate: 40% on generation-skipping transfers above the exemption

Federal Estate Tax

  • Exemption: $5,450,000 (exemption is decreased by lifetime gifts)
  • Portability: Yes (i.e., surviving spouse may elect to use deceased spouse’s unused exemption, in effect, giving married couples an exemption of $10,900,000)
  • Rate: 40% on the value of the estate above the exemption amount

Federal Income Tax for Trusts and Estates

  • Tax Brackets: see chart below
  • Tax Rates: see chart below
  • Net Investment Income Tax: A 3.8% surcharge tax on net investment income applies to trusts and estates that are above the $12,300 income threshold (i.e., the marginal tax rate on net investment income above that threshold is then 43.4%)
  • Distributable Net Income: Net income that is distributed to beneficiaries of a trust or estate is taxed at the beneficiaries’ level and not at the trust or estate’s level
Chart: Federal Income Taxation of Trusts and Estates
If Taxable Income is: The Tax is:
Not over $2,550 15% of the taxable income
Over $2,550 but not over $5,950 $382.50 plus 25% of the excess over $2,550
Over $5,950 but not over $9,050 $1,232.50 plus 28% of the excess over $5,950
Over $9,050 but not over $12,400 $2,100.50 plus 33% of the excess over $9,050
Over $12,400 $3,206 plus 39.6% of the excess over $12,400

State Taxes

Each State has its own set of rules when it comes to estate tax, gift tax, inheritance tax, and income taxation of trusts and estates. Be sure to check with a professional in your State for an update.

For a complete summary of all 2016 Federal tax-related inflation adjustments see Rev. Proc. 2015-53, available here: https://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-drop/rp-15-53.pdf.

I hope this helps!

-Matt

 

© 2015 Matthew D. Brehmer and Crummey Estate Plan.

Charitable Remainder Trusts – Lifetime income for you, tax control now, and a gift to charity at the end

Recently, Appleton Group LLC partnered with our Firm, Remley & Sensenbrenner, to produce a brief informational video on a powerful estate planning tool called a Charitable Remainder Trust (CRT). A CRT can help you accomplish three goals: provide lifetime income for you and your family, control taxes now and fund your favorite charities at the end of the trust. Check out the video below…

2015 Estate and Gift Tax Update – A Quick Snapshot

It recently dawned on me that a lot of us out there, including myself, find ourselves constantly “Googleing” different estate and gift tax thresholds throughout the beginning of the year for a quick refresher on the updated thresholds. The purpose of this post is to provide a snapshot of some of the most common 2015 estate and gift tax thresholds, tax rates, exemptions, elections, etc. Feel free to use this how you see fit. Additionally, if you have any other commonly used 2015 estate and/or gift tax updates that I may have left off the list, feel free to leave them in the comments.

Federal Gift Tax

  • Lifetime Exemption: $5,430,000
  • Annual Exclusion: $14,000
  • Gift-Splitting: Yes, if married and spouse consents (i.e., annual exclusion is $28,000 for married couples)
  • Rate: 40% on gifts above the lifetime exemption (plus the annual exclusion)

Federal Generation-Skipping Transfer Tax

  • Exemption: $5,430,000
  • Portability: No
  • Rate: 40% on generation-skipping transfers above the exemption

Federal Estate Tax

  • Exemption: $5,430,000 (exemption is decreased by lifetime gifts)
  • Portability: Yes (i.e., surviving spouse may elect to use deceased spouse’s unused exemption, in effect, giving married couples an exemption of $10,860,000)
  • Rate: 40% on the value of the estate above the exemption amount

Federal Income Tax for Trusts and Estates

  • Tax Brackets: see chart below
  • Tax Rates: see chart below
  • Net Investment Income Tax: A 3.8% surcharge tax on net investment income applies to trusts and estates that are above the $12,300 income threshold (i.e., the marginal tax rate on net investment income above that threshold is then 43.4%)
  • Distributable Net Income: Net income that is distributed to beneficiaries of a trust or estate is taxed at the beneficiaries’ level and not at the trust or estate’s level

Chart: Federal Income Taxation of Trusts and Estates

If Taxable Income is: The Tax is:
Not over $2,500 15% of the taxable income
Over $2,500 but not over $5,900 $375 plus 25% of the excess over $2,500
Over $5,900 but not over $9,050 $1,225 plus 28% of the excess over $5,900
Over $9,050 but not over $12,300 $2,107 plus 33% of the excess over $9,050
Over $12,300 $3,179.50 plus 39.6% of the excess over $12,300

State Taxes

Each State has its own set of rules when it comes to estate tax, gift tax, inheritance tax, and income taxation of trusts and estates. Be sure to check with a professional in your State for an update.

For a complete summary of all 2015 Federal tax-related inflation adjustments see Rev. Proc. 2014-61, available here: http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-drop/rp-14-61.pdf

I hope this helps!

-Matt

© 2015 Matthew D. Brehmer and Crummey Estate Plan.

‘Tis the Season for Gifting – Lifetime Gifts: An Important Estate Planning Technique (Part 1)

Prior to the substantial increase in the lifetime exemption amount, lifetime gift planning was a popular estate planning technique. In today’s estate tax environment, however, most advisors may not believe that such lifetime gift planning is required for most of their clients. But, estate planning techniques that involve making lifetime gifts, even today, are still very much alive. Some of these include the following: For those clients who –

  • May still be subject to the estate tax at death;
  • May want to engage in Medicaid planning;
  • May want to provide for their loved ones during their life; and
  • May want to decrease the size of their estate for easier estate administration after death.

Part 1 of this post will focus on a brief overview of the similarities and differences in making annual gifts as opposed to lifetime exemption gifts. Then, Part 2 of this post will focus on the above circumstances as to why someone may choose to make lifetime gifts even in today’s tax environment.

Annual Gifts

The annual gift exclusion is currently $14,000 per year for any and every recipient. This means that a taxpayer may give up to $14,000 per year to each and every person they wish. Furthermore, if the taxpayer is married, their spouse can consent to splitting the gift. This means that the married couple may give up to $28,000 per year to each and every person they wish.

A few important items to note regarding annual gifts include the following:

  • Any gift up to $14,000 (or $28,000 for a married couple) does not count towards your lifetime exemption amount. This means that you can give away up to the annual exclusion amount each year to as many people as you wish and never diminish your lifetime exemption amount.
  • Any gifts given up to the annual exclusion amount will be excluded from your estate. This means that they will not be counted as part of your estate after your death when determining whether or not you are subject to the estate tax.
  • Any appreciation on that gift will also be excluded from your estate. This means that if you gift a stock worth $100 to your child and, later, at the time of your death, the stock is now worth $150, not only will the $100 be excluded from your estate, but so will the $50 in appreciation ($150-$100).
  • Any gifts will have a carry-over basis to the recipient of the gift. This means that if you bought a stock at $100 and then, later, gift it to your child when it is worth $150, the child’s basis in the stock will be the same as yours, $100. This would result in $50 in capital gains subject to capital gains tax rates if your child were to later sell the stock ($150-$100).
  • Gifts may be made to either individuals or trusts (i.e., Crummey Trusts). It is important to note here that in order for the gift to be made to a trust for the benefit of someone, it must be a present, complete gift – see my previous blog post regarding Crummey Trusts. Also note, for example, that if you gift $14,000 to a Crummey Trust for the benefit of your child, you may not also use the annual exclusion amount to gift $14,000 outright to that same child in that same year. Whether the gift is given outright to your child or to a Crummey Trust for the benefit of your child or a combination of both, the maximum amount you can gift in 2014 is $14,000 to that child; that is, if you do not want to exceed the annual gift exclusion amount.
  • Any gifts made below or up to $14,000 do not require you to file an annual Gift Tax Return – Form 709. If the gift made to any one individual is greater than $14,000 in a single year, then a Gift Tax Return would be required to be filed.
  • If the annual exclusion amount for one year is not used, it does not carry over to the next year; if you don’t use it, you lose it. However, you will still be able to use that next year’s annual exclusion amount to make gifts.

Lifetime Exemption Gifts

The lifetime exemption amount in 2014 is $5.34 million ($5.43 million in 2015). This means that over and above the annual exclusion amount each year, you can gift up to $5.34 million during your lifetime without being subject to the gift tax. If you ever gift above this exemption amount during your lifetime, then you will be subject to a 40% gift tax. It is important to note that this is assessed against the gift giver; the one receiving the gift will not be subject to the gift tax (but may be later subject to the income tax or estate tax).

A few important items to note regarding lifetime exemption gifts include the following:

  • Gifts may be made to either individuals or trusts. Similar to annual gifts, you cannot exceed the lifetime exemption amount without being subject to the gift tax; how you spread out that exemption amount is completely up to you though. This means that you could give $2 mil to your daughter outright, $2 mil to your son outright, and $1.34 mil to a trust to be held for the benefit of your son and daughter. Also note that similar to annual gifts, special rules apply to trusts receiving gifts.
  • Any gifts made above the $14,000 annual exclusion amount (or $28,000 for a married couple) will count towards your lifetime exemption amount. This means that if in 2014 you give $114,000 to your child, $14,000 of the gift will be offset by the annual exclusion amount and $100,000 will offset your lifetime exemption amount, bringing that lifetime exemption amount down to $5.24 million.
  • Any gifts given will be excluded from your estate. However, any gifts given above the annual exclusion amount will be counted against your lifetime exemption amount at your death. This means that if in 2014 you gifted $5,354,000 to your child, $14,000 of the gift would be offset by the annual exclusion amount and $5.34 mil would offset your entire lifetime exemption amount but no gift tax would be assessed. However, when you later die, that $5.34 mil gift that offset your entire lifetime exemption in 2014 will also offset whatever the lifetime exemption amount is in the year of your death. Therefore, if you later died in 2015, you would only have $90,000 remaining for your lifetime exemption amount ($5.43 mil – $5.34 mil). Thus, any assets left in your estate at death above that $90,000 would be subject to the estate tax.
  • Any appreciation on that gift will be excluded from your estate and not count towards your lifetime exemption. This means that if you gift stock worth $5.34 mil to your child and use your entire lifetime exemption amount to do so tax-free and, later, at the time of your death, the stock is now worth $10.34 mil, only the $5.34 million will offset your lifetime exemption and the $5 mil in appreciation will not be included in your estate and will escape estate tax liability at your death.
  • Any gifts made will have a carry-over basis to the recipient of the gift. This means that if you bought stock at $1 mil and then, later, gift it to your child when it is worth $1.5 mil, the child’s basis in the stock will be the same as yours, $1 mil. This would result in $0.5 mil in capital gains subject to capital gains tax rates if your child were to later sell the stock ($1.5 mil -$1 mil).
  • Any gifts made above the $14,000 annual exclusion to any one person will require you to file an annual Gift Tax Return – Form 709. However, no tax will be due as long as you have not used up your entire lifetime exemption amount.
  • The lifetime exemption amount is just that, a lifetime exemption. Once it is used up, it is gone. However, under the current law, it increases each year (i.e., it is indexed for inflation). This means that if in 2014 you used up the entire $5.34 mil lifetime exemption, in 2015 you would receive another $90,000 in lifetime exemption because of the increase to $5.43 mil.
  • When you die, if you have not used up your entire lifetime exemption amount, your surviving spouse may elect to “port” your lifetime exemption amount. This means that if you die with $5.34 mil of unused lifetime exemption (i.e., your entire estate goes to your surviving spouse so that you don’t have to use any of your exemption), and your surviving spouse ports your lifetime exemption, the surviving spouse’s lifetime exemption in 2014 would then be $10.68 mil ($5.34 mil + $5.34 mil). Note that there are many different rules and strategies as to why a couple may or may not use portability, which will be discussed in a later blog post.

Conclusion

As you can see from the summary discussion above, there are many similarities, differences and little quirks to consider before making annual gifts and lifetime exemption gifts. Part 2 of this post will focus on some of those considerations and the different circumstances in which you may still want to consider and advise your clients to make lifetime gifts, even in today’s tax environment.

Happy Holidays!

-Matt

© 2014 Matthew D. Brehmer and Crummey Estate Plan.

The Monthly 5 and 5: The 5 or 5 Power

Each month I will be publishing a post discussing five advantages and five disadvantages of a particular estate planning technique – the post will be called The Monthly 5 and 5. In this first installment of The Monthly 5 and 5, I will be discussing the “5 or 5 power.” Notice the similarity? Yes, that’s right, the “5 or 5 power” was inspiration for The Monthly 5 and 5.

The “5 or 5 power” gives a beneficiary of a trust the power in any calendar year to withdraw the greater of $5,000 or 5% of the trust’s assets. This means that for any trust with assets of less than $100,000, the beneficiary will have the power to withdraw up to $5,000 each year; and, for any trust with assets of more than $100,000, the beneficiary will have the power to withdraw up to 5% of the value of the trust’s assets each year (i.e., because 5% of $100,000 is $5,000).

You may be asking yourself: Why $5,000 or 5%? What’s so magical about those numbers? Well, put most simplistically, because that is what the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) says. In order to avoid certain consequences, this annual withdrawal power is limited to $5,000 or 5% of the trust’s assets under the IRC. Why is it important to abide by the IRC? Well, for instance, if instead, you gave the beneficiary more than a $5,000 or 5% annual power to withdraw, the beneficiary’s withdrawal power could be deemed a general power of appointment over the trust and some or all the assets in the trust could be included in the beneficiary’s estate for estate tax purposes. This could create devastating tax consequences for the beneficiary.

Below are five reasons (each with an advantage and disadvantage) why the “5 or 5 power” can be a useful estate planning tool:

Reason 1: Minimum Distribution

Let’s say that the trust allows the trustee to only distribute the income of the trust (and not any of the trust principal) to the beneficiary each year for the beneficiary’s support. If in a particular year the trust generates very little income, the 5 or 5 power allows the beneficiary the power to withdraw up to $5,000 or 5% of the trust’s assets that year regardless of the amount of trust income.

Advantage: At a minimum, the beneficiary will be able to receive at least $5,000 per year for support.

Disadvantage: The amount subject to the beneficiary’s 5 or 5 power may not be protected from the beneficiary and/or creditors of the beneficiary.

Reason 2: Strict Trustee

Let’s say that the trust allows the trustee to distribute income and/or principal only for the health, education and support of the beneficiary. If a trustee is particularly strict when following this standard and distributes very little to the beneficiary, the 5 or 5 power allows the beneficiary the power to withdraw up to $5,000 or 5% of the trust’s assets each year even if it is not for the health, education and support of the beneficiary.

Advantage: The beneficiary will be able to withdraw at least up to $5,000 per year without having to satisfy the trustee that it is being used for health, education and support.

Disadvantage: The beneficiary could exhaust the trust more rapidly than intended over time, whether the trust is small (i.e., $5,000 withdrawn each year) or large (5% of trust assets are withdrawn each year), when the main purpose of the trust may have been to transfer wealth to future generations.

Reason 3: Benefit Without Estate Inclusion

Let’s say that both the trust grantor and his wife are near their lifetime exemption amounts for estate taxes (i.e., if they go over their exemption amount, part of their estate will be subject to estate taxes). The trust grantor sets up a trust for the benefit of his spouse during her lifetime with the remainder going to his children at his wife’s death. Here, the 5 or 5 power allows the wife to use the trust as another source of support and income during her lifetime (limited to $5,000 or 5%) but does not substantially increase her estate for estate tax purposes at her death.

Advantage: The amount of trust assets not subject to the 5 or 5 power are not included in the wife’s estate at her death; and, thus, not subject to estate taxes at her death.

Disadvantage: The amount of trust assets subject to the 5 or 5 power (i.e., the greater of $5,000 or 5% of the trust’s assets) will be included in the wife’s estate at her death; and, thus, if including this amount in her estate causes her total estate to exceed her lifetime exemption amount, the amount that exceeds the lifetime exemption amount will be subject to estate taxes at her death.

Reason 4: Crummey Trusts

Let’s say that the trust grantor set up a Crummey Trust for his two children. Each year his two children allow their right to withdraw the amount of the annual gift to lapse. When a beneficiary allows their withdrawal right to lapse, it is considered a deemed gift to the other beneficiaries of the trust. However, by adding the 5 or 5 power to the Crummey Trust, the lapsing of the withdrawal right is only considered a deemed gift to the other beneficiaries so much as it exceeds $5,000 or 5% of the trust’s assets.

Advantage: If the amount of the annual gift to the Crummey Trust is less than or equal to $5,000 or 5% of the trust’s assets, there will be no deemed gifts to the other beneficiaries by allowing the withdrawal right to lapse.

Disadvantage: While the main purpose of a Crummey Trust is to protect the trust assets from the beneficiaries until you see fit (as spelled out in the trust document), the 5 or 5 power gives the beneficiaries unfettered rights to withdraw up to $5,000 or 5% of the trust’s assets each year, regardless of the amount of the current year’s gift.

Reason 5: Hanging Crummey Trusts

Let’s use the same scenario as in Reason 4 except that the amount of the annual gift exceeds $5,000 or 5% of the trust’s assets. If the amount of the gift exceeds $5,000 or 5% of the trust’s assets, it is considered a deemed gift to the other beneficiaries of the amount in excess of the 5 or 5 power; and, thus, possibly causing gift tax consequences for the beneficiaries in the future. However, by adding a “hanging Crummey” provision, the amount of this deemed gift can be eliminated over time (I will explain this further in another post).

Advantage: Over time, the amount of any deemed gift to the other beneficiaries caused by allowing the withdrawal right to lapse will be eliminated; thus, not creating gift tax consequences for the beneficiaries in the future.

Disadvantage: The “hanging Crummey” provision allows the beneficiary to have continued withdrawal rights over the accumulated amount of gifts that have not  yet been offset by the 5 or 5 power; thus, allowing such withdrawal rights to possibly substantially increase over time, contrary to what the trust grantor may have intended.

As you can see above, adding a “5 or 5 power” to a trust document may be done for a number of reasons and it does have some really important advantages. But, like most things in life, the advantages must be weighed against the disadvantages. As always, if a “5 or 5 power” is something you are considering, you should consult an experienced estate planning attorney. It will be each individual’s personal situation and wishes that will control whether or not the advantages outweigh the disadvantages of utilizing a “5 or 5 power” in their estate planning.

– Attorney Matthew D. Brehmer

 

© 2014 Matthew D. Brehmer and Crummey Estate Plan.